Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Indonesian version of servqual for assessing oral health service quality

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The demand for improving the quality of general health services and oral services is increasing. One of the best and most used models for evaluating the quality of health services is SERVQUAL. This research tests the validity and reliability of the Indonesian version of SERVQUAL and identifies the gaps in the quality of dental care in the teaching hospital of the Faculty of Dentistry at Universitas Indonesia. A sample of (n=127) patients between 12 and 71 years old was recruited from patients who visited a teaching dental hospital in Jakarta. After translating the instrument, we conducted psychometric testing. The reliability coefficients (Cronbach a) for SERVQUAL were as follows: SERVQUAL Expectation 0.90 and SERVQUAL Perception 0.90. The reliability test of the Indonesian version of SERVQUAL yielded test and retest Interclass Correlation Coefficients that were in excellent agreement with Expectation 0.95 and Perception 0.88. The construct validity of SERVQUAL Indonesian version's Expectation and Perception showed that scores were associated significantly (p=0.00) with global ratings on a five-point Likert scale question. In general, there was no significance, but some domains showed a tendency toward significance: Domain Teamwork Expectations (p=0.09), Outcome Perception (p=0.09) and Reliability Perception (0.07). Total SERVQUAL discriminant validity was measured using satisfied and dissatisfied variables divided into two domains: the SERVQUAL Total Domain and the MOH Core Value Domain. Satisfied and dissatisfied variables were classified in terms of delta values: Delta with ≤0 was dissatisfied, and Delta with > 0 was satisfied. Total SERVQUAL Perceptions, whose satisfaction was 82.84 (9.37) and whose dissatisfaction was 78.28 (7.16), were significant (p=0.01). This study provides strong evidence supporting the reliability and validity of the Indonesian SERVQUAL to be used as a satisfied oral health service measure for Indonesian people.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)945-951
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Oral health service quality
  • Reliability
  • Validity


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