Correlation of Intravesical Prostatic Protrusion in Benign Prostate Hyperplasia and Residual Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms After Surgery: A Systematic Review

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Context: Intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) is a potential candidate for the initial evaluation of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Intravesical prostatic protrusion is also known to predict the outcome of trials without a catheter and medical treatment outcomes and to determine bladder outlet obstructions. Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether IPP influences the residual LUTS after surgery in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia who have undergone prostate surgery. Evidence Acquisition: An online database search was conducted regarding the prognosis of postoperative benign prostate hy-perplasia patients with intravesical prostatic protrusions. The selected databases comprised PubMed, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library. Randomized controlled trial, cohort, or case control studies that were written in English or Bahasa and published up until November 2020 were included. We reviewed postoperative outcomes, including subjective symptoms, based on the International Prostate Symptom Score and objective signs, such as Qmax and post voiding residue. Results: Our initial database search yielded 143 papers. After exclusion from abstract screening, seven papers were considered for full-text analysis. Five of these studies showed higher preoperative intravesical prostatic protrusion within successful postoperative outcomes. Some studies showed that patients with significant intravesical prostatic protrusions had more significant International Prostate Symptom Score decrements. However, two studies demonstrated that intravesical prostatic protrusion was not a significant prognostic factor. Conclusions: Most studies suggested that intravesical prostatic protrusion can predict better post-surgery lower urinary tract symptom outcomes. Further research using information about the risk of bias in ultrasound examination and more homogeneous surgical techniques and considering the duration of patients’ illness before they receive surgical management is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere113614
JournalNephro-Urology Monthly
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • Benign Prostate Hyperplasia
  • International Prostate Symptom Score
  • Intravesical Prostatic Protrusion
  • Prostate Surgery
  • Residual Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms


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