Coral reefs degradation pattern and its exposure towards climate change in Bunaken National Park

Nafil Rabbani Attamimi, Ratna Saraswati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Coral reef is one of many shallow-water ecosystems that are found in Bunaken National park. The coral reefs ecosystem in Bunaken National Park are threatened by the impact of climate change, such as rising seawater temperature, Change in Salinity, and increase extreme meteorological events. This study will address the coral reefs condition and its pattern in Bunaken National Park, how are the water condition in Bunaken National Park changes in the timespan of 2002-2017, and what are the relations between the degradation pattern of the coral reefs and the seawater condition as an exposure towards the ecosystem Climate change in the context of this study is based on oceanographic variables such as sea surface temperature and seawater salinity. The methods that are used in this study is through meta-descriptive analysis to determine the exposure of the coral reefs, spatial-descriptive analysis to relate between climate change and coral reef conditions. The results showed that the degradation conditions of coral reefs from 2002 to 2013 have decreased, but the condition of the degraded coral reefs has increased by 2017. Based on the analysis of the conditions of the exposure and coral reefs show that there is a correlation between the two.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)170-175
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of GEOMATE
Issue number60
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • And shallow-water
  • Climate change
  • Coral reefs
  • Exposure


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