Green synthesis of ZrO2 NPs from plant sources has gained significant attention due to its advantages, such as eco-friendly and low-cost production compared to chemical synthesis methods. The objectives of this work were to study the characteristics of green synthesized ZrO2 NPs using three types of Boehmeria virgata leaf extracts in n-hexane (ZrO2–H), methanol (ZrO2-M), and water (ZrO2–W) at various calcination temperatures (500, 700, and 900 °C). ZrO2 NPs with different structures, morphologies, surface properties, and acidity were fabricated through an eco-friendly synthesis method using three types of Indonesian B. virgata leaf extract at various calcination temperatures. The resulting ZrO2 NPs exhibited monoclinic and tetragonal phases, while a tetragonal-dominated structure was detected on ZrO2–H 700, ZrO2-M 700, and ZrO2-M 900 NPs. SEM images showed that ZrO2–H and ZrO2-M NPs possessed homogenous nanospheres shape, whereas the combination of nanoflakes and nanospheres was observed in ZrO2–W NPs. Based on the analysis of TEM micrographs, the average nanoparticle sizes of ZrO2–H, ZrO2-M, and ZrO2–W at calcination temperatures of 900 °C were determined to be 16.02 nm, 34.63 nm, and 17.63 nm respectively. The formed ZrO2 NPs prepared using BVLEs, exhibited a specific surface area ranging from 11.32 to 58.86 m2/g, a pore volume ranging from 0.058 to 0.183 cm³/g, and a pore diameter ranging from 9.85 to 58.65 nm. The acidity of ZrO2 NPs ranged from 0.0397 mmol/g up to 1.6045 mmol/g. The calcination temperature influenced the XRD crystallite size, surface texture (specific area and porosity), and acidity of ZrO2 NPs mediated by BVLEs. This green and simple synthesis method offers an alternative technique for forming highly valuable ZrO2 NPs compared to chemical synthesis methods.
- Boehmeria virgata
- Green synthesis