Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks with Total Variation and Color Correction for Generating Indonesian Face Photo from Sketch

Mia Rizkinia, Nathaniel Faustine, Masahiro Okuda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Featured Application: Indonesia’s police force generates hand-drawn face sketches to reconstruct the facial visualization of a fugitive from eyewitness testimony. By the proposed method, more realistic photographs based on forensic drawings can be provided to improve the quality of visualizations given to the public regarding the suspected criminals in the all-points bulletin or wanted poster. Historically, hand-drawn face sketches have been commonly used by Indonesia’s police force, especially to quickly describe a person’s facial features in searching for fugitives based on eyewitness testimony. Several studies have been performed, aiming to increase the effectiveness of the method, such as comparing the facial sketch with the all-points bulletin (DPO in Indonesian terminology) or generating a facial composite. However, making facial composites using an application takes quite a long time. Moreover, when these composites are directly compared to the DPO, the accuracy is insufficient, and thus, the technique requires further development. This study applies a conditional generative adversarial network (cGAN) to convert a face sketch image into a color face photo with an additional Total Variation (TV) term in the loss function to improve the visual quality of the resulting image. Furthermore, we apply a color correction to adjust the resulting skin tone similar to that of the ground truth. The face image dataset was collected from various sources matching Indonesian skin tone and facial features. We aim to provide a method for Indonesian face sketch-to-photo generation to visualize the facial features more accurately than the conventional method. This approach produces visually realistic photos from face sketches, as well as true skin tones.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10006
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • GAN
  • image generator
  • sketch to photo
  • total variation


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