Background: In Asian countries with limited resources, clarithromycin-based triple therapy may not be readily available. There are also few direct comparisons of different regimens in Asia. Aim: To compare two lansoprazole-based non-clarithromycin triple therapies and one dual therapy in a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study of Helicobacter pylori eradication and duodenal ulcer healing. Methods: Fourteen centres in Asia participated in this study. Patients with acute duodenal ulcer who were H. pylori-positive were recruited. They were randomized to receive: (a) lansoprazole 30 mg b.d., amoxycillin 1 g b.d. and metronidazole 500 mg b.d. for 2 weeks (LAM-2 W), or (b) LAM for 1 week and placebo (LAM-1 W), or (c) lansoprazole 30 mg b.d., amoxycillin 1 g b.d. and placebo for 2 weeks (LA-2 W). Upper endoscopy was repeated at week 6 to check for duodenal ulcer healing. Symptoms and side-effects were recorded. Results: A total of 228 patients were recruited, and two patients took less than 50% of the drugs. H. pylori eradication rates (intention-to-treat) were 68 out of 82 (83%) with LAM-2 W, 55 out of 71 (78%) with LAM-1 W and 43 out of 75 (57%) with LA-2 W. There were significant differences (P = 0.001) in eradication rates when comparing either LAM-2 W or LAM-1 W with LA-2 W. The eradication rate in patients with metronidazole resistant H. pylori strains were significantly lower than those with metronidazole sensitive strains (P = 0.0001). The duodenal ulcer healing rates at week 6 were 85%, 85% and 72% in LAM-2 W, LAM-1 W and LA-2 W, respectively (P = 0.065). Side-effects occurred in 13%, 11% and 9% in LAM-2 W, LAM-1 W and LA-2 W, respectively. H. pylori eradication and initial ulcer size were factors affecting duodenal ulcer healing. Conclusions: This Asian multicentre study showed that 1-week lansoprazole-based triple therapy without clarithromycin has similar efficacy in H. pylori eradication and ulcer healing compared with a 2-week regimen. Both triple therapies were significantly better than dual therapy in H. pylori eradication. Therefore, 1-week lansoprazole-based triple therapy is as safe and effective as 2-week therapy in eradication of a pylori infection and healing of duodenal ulcer in these Asian centres.