Comparative study of the two-period of epidemiological analysis of risk factors for breast cancer in indonesia. Does it change?

Muchlis Ramli, Setyawati Budiningsih, Yoshiyuki Ohno, Didid Tjindarbumi, Goi Sakamoto, Santoso Cornain, Joedo Prihartono, Idral Darwis, Sadao Suzuki, Gunawan Tjahjadi, Kenji Wakai, Drupadi S. Dillon, Esti Soetrisno, Endang Sri Roostini, Susumu Watanabe

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1 Citation (Scopus)


A case control study of epidemiological aspect of breast cancer especially concerning the risk factors and lifestyles in breast cancer patients had been carried out twice in Indonesia. Firstly in 1980-1981 (one year), performed by the University of Indonesia, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Department of Surgery and 90 cases of breast cancer were compared to 90 controls. In the second study, performed under the International Collaborative Study on Breast Cancer between Indonesia and Japan (University of Indonesia from Indonesia and Nagoya University and Cancer Institute Tokyo from Japan), 300 cases of breast cancer were compared to 600 matched controls. In comparative analysis between the two studies, the following findings were obtained, it was estimated that there was no change of age distribution of breast cancer, which peaked at the age group of 40-49. There was no significant change of the stage distribution of breast cancer, although early detection program pioneered by Indonesia Cancer Foundation had been carried out since twenty years ago. Ten years difference was seen between the first study and the second study, while the distribution of cases according to education did not change significantly. The result of risk factor analysis showed that only irradiation and history of trauma increased the risk of breast cancer significantly in the first study, while obese, marital status, illiterate, pregnancy and lactation did not cause significant difference. In the second study, it was found that marriage and irradiation had protective effect in the development of breast cancer; while separated, widowed status, illiterate, pregnancy, lactation and trauma were found as significant risk factors in breast cancer development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90-97
Number of pages8
JournalMedical Journal of Indonesia
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 1999


  • Breast cancer
  • Case-control study
  • Epidemiological analysis


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