Colloidal Stability of CA, SDS and PVA Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (IONPs): Effect of Molar Ratio and Salinity

Siti Nurliyana Che Mohamed Hussein, Zulhelmi Amir, Badrul Mohamed Jan, Munawar Khalil, Azlinda Azizi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (IONPs) have received unprecedented interest in various applications. The main challenges in IONPs are fluid stability due to agglomeration in a saline condition. This paper aims to investigate the colloidal stability of citric acid (CA), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) under various molar ratios and levels of salinity. Firstly, the IONPs were synthesized using a facile co-precipitation approach. Secondly, the IONPs were coated using a simple dip-coating method by varying the molar ratio of CA, SDS and PVA. Next, the coated IONPs were characterized by using an X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) for the morphological and crystallographic study of coated IONPs. Finally, the coated IONPs were characterized for their zeta potential value and hydrodynamic size using a Zetasizer and their turbidity was measured using a turbidity meter. It was found that at a low salinity level, 0.07 M of CA-IONPs, a high zeta potential value, a smaller hydrodynamic size, and a high turbidity value of −40.9 mV, 192 nm and 159 NTU were observed, respectively. At a high salinity level, 1.0 M SDS-IONPs recorded a high zeta potential value of 23.63 mV, which corresponds to a smaller hydrodynamic size (3955 nm) and high turbidity result (639 NTU). These findings are beneficial for delivering cutting-edge knowledge, especially in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4787
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • citric acid
  • colloidal stability
  • iron oxide nanoparticles
  • PVA
  • SDS


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