Cognitive performance of 4 to 6-year-old children: a longitudinal study

Nur Handayani Utami, Rini Sekartini, Risatianti Kolopaking, Besral, Helda Khusun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background Many children in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) have reduced cognitive abilities, but few studies have explored the influencing factors. Objective To determine the determinants of children’s low cogni[1]tive development at 4 to 6- year-old. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study in year 2021. The data was obtained from Bogor Longitudinal Study of Child Growth and Development (BLSCGD) that started from year 2012. For this analysis, we considered 165 of children aged 4-6 years. The dependent variable in this analysis was cognitive development as measured by the Indonesian Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) with the indicators of full-scale IQ (FSIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ). The independent variables were determinants of children’s cognitive development at 4-6 years, consisted of socio-demographic factors, determi[1]nants from early life (0-23 months), as well as determinants from current conditions. Multivariate analysis done with the logistic regression test.Results Bivariate analysis revealed that paternal education level was significantly associated with FSIQ and inadequate calorie intake in infancy and poor child stimulation were significantly associated with VIQ. In the final model of multivariate analysis, low paternal education level retained a significant association with FSIQ. Psychosocial stimulation was significantly associated with VIQ and inadequate calorie intake during infancy was significantly associated with PIQ. Conclusion Low paternal education level and inadequate psy[1]chosocial stimulation are risk factors for reduced child cognitive development in 4-6-year-olds. Inadequate calorie intake in infancy even though not statistically significant it has high OR values for low VIQ and PIQ, thus the results showed the importance of calory intake in infancy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-72
Number of pages8
JournalPaediatrica Indonesiana(Paediatrica Indonesiana)
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • children
  • cognitive development
  • determinant factors
  • longitudinal study


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