Co-developing evidence-informed adaptation actions for resilient citywide sanitation: Local government response to climate change in Indonesia

Juliet Willetts, Cindy Priadi, Osha Ombasta, Dwica Wulandari, Inas Imtiyaz, Ni Nyoman Sri Natih Sudhiastiningsih, Jeremy Kohlitz, Freya Mills, Maraita Listyasari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Already climate-related hazards are impacting sanitation systems in Indonesia and elsewhere, and climate models indicate these hazards are likely to increase in frequency and intensity. Without due attention, to maintain existing progress on Sustainable Development Goal 6’s target 6.2 and to increase it to meet ambitions for 2030 will be difficult. City governments need new forms of evidence to respond, as well as approaches to enable them to consider sufficient breadth of strategies to adapt effectively. This paper describes a co-production research process which engaged local governments in four cities in Indonesia experiencing different climate hazards. Local government engagement took place across three stages of (i) inception and design, (ii) participation as key informants and (iii) joint analysis and engagement on the findings. We adapted and simplified a risk prioritisation process based on current literature and employed a novel framework of a ‘climate resilient sanitation system’ to prompt articulation of current and proposed climate change adaptation response actions. In contrast to many current framings of climate resilience in sanitation that focus narrowly on technical responses, the results paint a rich picture of efforts needed by city governments across all domains, including planning, institutions, financing, infrastructure and management options, user awareness, water cycle management and monitoring and evaluation. Local government commitment and improved comprehension on the implications of climate change for sanitation service delivery were key outcomes arising from the co-production process. With strengthened policy and capacity building initiatives from national level, this foundation can be supported, and Indonesian city governments will be equipped to move forward with adaptation actions that protect on-going access to sanitation services, public health and the environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2129-2150
Number of pages22
JournalEnvironment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
Issue number8
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Climate change adaptation
  • co-production
  • governance
  • sanitation


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