Clinicopathology profile evaluated against several risk factors in breast cancer cases

Idral Darwis, Muchlis Ramli, Didid Tjindarbumi, Esti Soetrisno, Gunawan Tjahjadi, Endang Sri Roostini Hardianto, Santoso Cornain, Drupadi Harnopidjati, Joedo Prihartono, Setyawati Budiningsih, Goi Sakamoto, Yoshiyuki Ohno, Kenji Wakai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The second batch case-control study on breast cancer has been conducted as a joint study between Indonesian and Japan. Two hundred and twenty six (226) cases of breast cancer was collected to assess the risk factors and evaluated for their clinical presentation of the disease. The age distribution in some high risk areas showed at age 35 to 55 years, with a single peak between 40 to 50. There was no difference in number of cases in respect to tumor site and menopausal status. The majority of cases 81.6 % were in advanced stage (II1A: 17.7%, 111B: 56.2% and IV: 11.9%) while in contrast stage I and II were very rare (1.3% and 11.9% respectively). Only 75 cases were operable; simple mastectomy was the most frequent surgery carried out (60.0%), followed by modified radical mastectomy (26.7%), classical radical mastectomy (12%) and breast conserving treatment (1.3%). The specimens were reviewed using classification recommended by the Japanese Breast Cancer Society revealed invasive ductal carcinoma (90.4 %) and the special type (9.6 %). Several risk factors were analyzed for their influence to the development of breast cancer, namely: marital status, age at first marriage, menarche, menopausal status, lactation, family history of breast cancer, use of contraceptive and fat consumption. Among the characteristics studied, the following factors significantly increased the risk of breast cancer: menopausal status (RR=1.51; 95% Cl: 1.10-2.09), non-lactating children (RR=1.83; 95% Cl: 1.07-3.11) and fat consumption (RR=2.61; 95% CI: 1.86-3.68), while the use of contraceptive showed protective effect. The findings will be discussed in its benefit relative to both the improvement of the treatment modality and the cancer control program.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)123-127
Number of pages5
JournalMedical Journal of Indonesia
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 1999


  • Breast cancer
  • Case-control study
  • Clinicopathological
  • Epidemiology


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