Clinicopathological characteristics predicting advanced stage and surgical margin invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma: A single-center study on 10 years of cancer registry data

Nur Rahadiani, Muhammad Habiburrahman, Diah Rini Handjari, Marini Stephanie, Ening Krisnuhoni

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2 Citations (Scopus)


The incidence profile of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not previously been comprehensively reported in Indonesia. The present study aimed to identify clinicopathological characteristics of patients with OSCC according to sex and age, to analyze histological differentiation patterns specific to tumor subsites, to highlight the role of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in metastasis, and to develop a model to predict advanced stage and margin invasion. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using 581 medical records and pathological specimens from cancer registry data in the Dr Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (Jakarta, Indonesia), between January 2011 and December 2020. Clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric tests. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for eligible parameters, identified using bivariate analysis, to predict advanced stage and margin invasion. Calibration of the prediction model was evaluated using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, its discrimination value assessed using the receiver operating characteristic and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Sex-specific patterns in tumor subsites and differences in clinical staging according to age were demonstrated in the patients with OSCC. The proportion of well-differentiated cases was significantly higher in most tumor subsites, except in the buccal mucosa (more moderately differentiated cases) and floor of the mouth (well and moderately differentiated cases being equal). LVI was significantly associated with nodal metastasis but not distant metastasis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age ≤45 years [odds ratio (OR), 2.26] and LVI (OR, 8.42) predicted patients having advanced-stage OSCC among general populations (AUC, 0.773); however, LVI (OR, 8.28) was the sole predictor of advanced stage amongst young patients (AUC, 0.737). Margin invasion was predicted solely by tumor subsite, including mouth not otherwise specified (OR, 3.04) and palate (OR, 6.13), in the general population (AUC, 0.711). Furthermore, margin invasion was predicted by the palate subsite (OR, 38.77) and LVI (OR, 11.61) in young patients (AUC, 0.762). Investigating young patients thoroughly when finding SCC in the mouth and palate, and assessing LVI, especially among young patients, is critical to prevent advanced staging and margin invasion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number364
JournalOncology Letters
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • advanced-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma
  • invaded surgical margins
  • oral squamous cell carcinoma
  • predictor model
  • retrospective analysis


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