Background: The occurrence of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) remains high despite system improvement in accordance with Joint Commission International because of heterogeneity of management. However, published clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) were not feasible to be implemented because these guidelines were not specific to Indonesian characteristics. Thus, a national CPG should be developed to minimize heterogeneity in the management of cIAI in Indonesia. Methods: We developed a CPG on cIAI through the adaptation of published CPGs. The process proceeded in steps recommended by ADAPTE. Published CPGs were critically appraised using Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II critical appraisal tools. For a specific updated CPG, the analysis was performed using Checklist for the Reporting of Updated Guidelines (CheckUp). Appropriate statements and recommendations in selected CPGs were adapted into our CPG with consideration of Indonesian characteristics. The recommendations were established by the hierarchy of evidence on Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). The approval of the recommendation draft was performed using the Delphi method. Results: Sixty-eight full-text guidelines were downloaded from several sites. Thirty-three CPGs were related to intra-abdominal infection and 18 others were specific on CPG on intra-abdominal infection and cIAI. On review of these 18 CPGs, 13 were strongly recommended, three were recommended, and two were not recommended. On review updated CPGs, five updated CPGs were found, all with the same score. Two of the strongly recommended updated CPGs had been published in 2016 and 2017, i.e. recommendations by the World Society of Emergency Surgery 2016 consensus conference and revised CPG of the Surgical Site Infection Society. There were a total of 84 statements and recommendations developed and approved by the task force through using the Delphi method. Conclusions: This guideline summarizes the definition, classification, pathophysiology, etiology, risk factors, assessments, and management of cIAI. Evidence-based recommendations have been developed with consideration of Indonesian-specific characteristics.
- clinical practice guidelines
- complicated intra-abdominal infection