Clinical parameters as predictors for sperm retrieval success in azoospermia: experience from Indonesia

Rinaldo Indra Rachman, Ghifari Nurullah, Widi Atmoko, Nur Rasyid, Sung Yong Cho, Ponco Birowo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Azoospermia is the most severe type of male infertility. This study aimed to identify useful clinical parameters to predict sperm retrieval success. This could assist clinicians in accurately diagnosing and treating patients based on the individual clinical parameters of patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed involving 517 patients with azoospermia who underwent sperm retrieval in Jakarta, Indonesia, between January 2010 and April 2023. Clinical evaluation and scrotal ultrasound, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels were evaluated before surgery. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine clinical parameters that could predict overall sperm retrieval success. Further subgroup analysis was performed to determine the factors that the diagnosis of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) diagnosis and sperm retrieval success among patients with NOA. Results: A total of 2,987 infertile men attended our clinic. Men with azoospermia (n=517) who met the inclusion criteria and did not fulfil any exclusion criteria were included in the study. The overall sperm retrieval success was 47.58%. Logistic regression revealed that FSH 7.76 mIU/mL (sensitivity: 60.1%, specificity: 63.3%, p<0.001); longest testicular axis length 3.89 cm (sensitivity: 33.6%, specificity: 41.6%); and varicocele (p<0.001) were independent factors for overall sperm retrieval. The FSH cutoff of 7.45 mIU/mL (sensitivity: 31.3%, specificity: 37.7%, p<0,001); longest testicular axis length 3.85 cm (sensitivity: 76.7%, specificity: 65.4%, p<0.001); and varicocele (p<0.001) were independent factors for NOA diagnosis. Varicocele was the only clinical parameter that significantly predicted the success of sperm retrieval in patients with NOA. Conclusions: FSH, LH, longest testicular axis, and varicocele are among the clinical parameters that are useful for predicting overall sperm retrieval success and NOA diagnosis. However, varicocele is the only clinical parameter that significantly predicts sperm retrieval success in patients with NOA. High-quality studies are required to assess the other predictors of sperm retrieval success.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1567
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Azoospermia
  • FSH
  • LH
  • Longest Testicular Axis
  • Sperm Retrieval
  • Testosterone
  • Varicocele


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