Clinical determinants of oxygen saturation and length of hospitalisation of COVID-19 patients: A cross-sectional study in Indonesia

Evi Susanti, Maria Rista Okstoria, Siti Wijayanti, Hilda Damayanti, Hasriza Eka Putra, Roselyn Chipojola, Muhammad Fauzi Rahman, Maria Dyah Kurniasari, Mega Hasanul Huda

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Aims: Indonesia was one of the countries with the highest COVID-19 positive cases. Understanding the length of hospitalisation is critical for anticipating bed demand and resource allocation, such as oxygen. This study aims to examine the determinants of oxygen saturation and the length of hospitalisation in Hermina Mekarsari Hospital, West Java, Indonesia. Methods: This cross-sectional study uses medical records from June to August 2021. The inclusion criteria were: COVID-19 patients aged between18 and 65, fully conscious, and not using mechanical ventilation. Participants who passed away during hospital stay were excluded. We used demographic information, laboratory data, and the clinician's assessments of the patients admitted to the hospital. Linear regression was performed for oxygen saturation on day seven, while logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict the length of hospital stay. Results: In total, 371 participants with an average age of 47.2 (standard deviation 15.8) years were included. Most participants were female (57.7%) and smoking (78.4%). The results indicated that decreasing oxygen saturation was reported in vomiting patients (β = 1.63, p-value =.001), hypertensive patients (β 1.18 with, p-value =.034), and patients with the increased respiratory rate (β = 0.28, p-value =.000). In the logistic regression, we found that respondents who experienced dyspnoea, headache, fever, an increasing number of D-Dimer and blood glucose, and those with diabetes mellitus were more likely to stay more than 14 days. Conclusions: Oxygen saturation was influenced by vomiting, hypertension, and increasing respiratory rate. Length of hospitalisation of more than 14 days was influenced by dyspnoea, headache, fever, increased number of D-Dimer, blood glucose, and diabetes mellitus. Identifying the determinants of oxygen saturation and length of stay can inform health professionals in designing a suitable intervention to reduce mortality and length of stay among COVID-19 patients in Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S38-S44
JournalEnfermeria Clinica
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • COVID-19
  • Cross-sectional study
  • Determinant factors
  • Hospitalisation
  • Oxygen saturation


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