Clinical characteristics influence cultivable-bacteria composition in the meconium of Indonesian neonates

Kristien Juni Thandwi Jonathan, Grasella Ong, Firsty Amanah Prasetyaningsih, Radhian Amandito, Rinawati Rohsiswatmo, Amarila Malik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Microbial colonization of a neonate's gastrointestinal tract has significant perinatal and lifetime health consequences. However, information regarding the profile of meconium microbiota in neonates and the influence of clinical parameters are lacking in the Indonesian population. This study aimed to preliminary investigate the profile of cultivable bacterial diversity of meconium isolated from neonates born at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (CMH), Jakarta. The cultivable bacteria were isolated from meconium samples and were then processed for cultivation and molecular identification. Results: Fourteen neonates were enrolled as described, i.e., seven hyperbilirubinemia (Hyp) and seven non-Hyp with ten neonates delivered by cesarean section (CS) and four others by vaginal route (VR), and with five exclusive breastfeeding (Ebf), four formula milk, and five combinations. Microbiological identification, molecular 16S rDNA PCR-Sanger sequencing, and PCA analysis of cultivable bacteria isolated from meconium showed Firmicutes' predominance (84.41%), with an abundant population of Staphylococcus, which consist of S. hominis, S. epidermidis, and S. haemolyticus. The influence of mode of delivery showed a lower diversity than the CS populates the VR, but their composition was similar. Concurrently, between feeding patterns, the genera profile did not show much difference; in the non-Ebf group, the total amount of Staphylococcus and Bacillus showed a higher amount but a less diverse. Interestingly, the non-Hyp group showed more abundant and diverse Staphylococcus than that of the Hyp group. In contrast, neonates diagnosed with NEC and proven sepsis showed the same pattern of Staphylococcus domination. Conclusion: Staphylococcus predominated the composition of cultivable bacteria in neonates meconium. Due to the small sample size, only the hyperbilirubinemia parameter significantly influenced the profile, i.e., Staphylococcus's proportion (p = 0.037).

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere05576
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • Clinical characteristic
  • Clinical outcomes
  • Clinical research
  • Digestive system
  • Feeding patterns
  • Gastrointestinal system
  • Health sciences
  • Hyperbilirubinemia
  • Indonesia
  • Meconium
  • Microbiology
  • Microbiota
  • Mode of delivery
  • Neonates
  • Pediatrics


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