Clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in Bali, Indonesia

Sri Masyeni, Erni Juwita Nelwan, Rois Muqsith Fatawy, Surya Wibawa, Putu Arya Nugraha, Jarwa Antara, Adi Suparta, D. G.Wedha Asmara, L. G.Sri Yenny, A. A.G. Budhitresna, Dewi Arimas, Dewi Indriani, Kmg Parwata, Ketut Sutarjana, Eka Sugiartha, Siska Kahari, Clareza Arief Wardhana, A. A.G. Indraningrat, Kadek Mulyantari, Arya Widiyana PasekOka Putrawan, Nyoman Trisna Yustiani, Gede Wardana, Made Indra Wijaya, Suka Aryana, Yuli Gayatri, Dewi Dian Sukmawati, Ketut Suastika, Tuti Parwati Merati, Made Bakta, Raka Widiana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction The spectrum of illness and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients may vary. This study reports the characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Bali, Indonesia, and evaluates the diagnostic value of their clinical symptoms. Method This observational study was conducted in eight hospitals. The patients were classified as non-severe COVID-19, severe COVID-19, and non-COVID-19. Demographics, clinical, laboratory, and radiologic characteristics, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients were collected. Factors associated with the severity and outcomes were assessed using the chi-squared test or ANOVA when appropriate. We also compared the clinical features of non-severe COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Results This study included 92 patients: 41 non-COVID-19 and 51 COVID-19 patients, comprising 45 non-severe and six severe cases. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 were cough (47.1%), fever (31.0%), and dyspnea (25.3%). Cough, fatigue, and anosmia have high accuracy, and combining these complaints in clinical diagnostics offered a higher accuracy in predicting COVID-19 patients (60.1%). We found lower lymphocyte counts and interleukin-1R levels and higher levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 in severe compared than in non-severe COVID-19 patients. Lactate dehydrogenase was associated with intensive care unit admission and ventilator use, while other markers such as neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 were not. Conclusion A battery of symptoms, including cough, fatigue, and anosmia, is likely associated with COVID-19 in Bali. Clinicians should be aware of these symptoms to ensure a prompt diagnostic test for COVID-19, beyond other causes of acute febrile illnesses.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0269026
JournalPloS one
Issue number6 June
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


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