Inflammation is a key driver of common noncommunicable diseases. Among common triggers of inflammation, chronic gingival inflammation (periodontitis) triggers a consistent humoral host inflammatory response, but little is known on its impact on circulating inflammatory cell profiles. We aimed to systematically appraise all the evidence linking periodontitis and its treatment to circulating inflammatory cell profiles. From 6 databases, 157 studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis and 29 studies for meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis showed that participants with periodontitis exhibited a significant mean increase in circulating CD4+, CD4+CD45RO+, IFNγ-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, CD19+CD27+ and CD5+ B cells, CD14+CD16+ monocytes, and CD16+ neutrophils but decrease in CD8+ T and CD14++CD16− monocytes. Our qualitative synthesis revealed that peripheral blood neutrophils of patients with periodontitis consistently showed elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when compared with those of healthy controls. Some evidence suggested that the treatment of periodontitis reversed the exaggerated ROS production, but limited and inconclusive data were found on several circulating inflammatory cell profiling. We conclude that periodontitis and its treatment are associated with minor but consistent alterations in circulating inflammatory cell profiles. These changes could represent key mechanisms explaining the association of periodontitis with other comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis.
- B cells
- circulating inflammatory cells
- systemic inflammation
- T cells