Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a common sequela of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The diagnosis of CPA is difficult and often misdiagnosed as smear-negative TB in endemic settings. Aspergillus IgG detection is the cornerstone of CPA diagnosis. There are a lack of studies on the prevalence of CPA in GeneXpert/smear-negative TB patients in Indonesia, despite a high number of TB cases. This study aims to determine the CPA rate in HIV-negative, GeneXpert-negative patients presenting with symptoms following completion of TB therapy and to evaluate the performance of LDBio Aspergillus immunochromatographic technology (ICT) lateral flow assay in the diagnosis of CPA. CPA was diagnosed on the basis of symptoms for ≥3 months, characteristic chest imaging and positive Aspergillus culture. Twenty (22%) out of 90 patients met the criteria for CPA. The LDBio test was positive in 16 (80%) CPA patients and in 21 (30%) non-CPA patients (p < 0.001) with 80% sensitivity and 70% specificity. Logistic regression revealed a positive LDBio Aspergillus ICT result, smoking history and diabetes to be important predictors of CPA diagnosis. Although CPA is an unrecognised disease in Indonesia, this study suggests that more than one in five GeneXpert negative patients with persistent symptoms following completion of TB therapy may have CPA.
- Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis