Chronic kidney disease in Hepatitis C and its association with liver cirrhosis and viral load: Revealing the importance of hematuria

Felix Firyanto Widjaja, Aida Lydia, Cosmas Rinaldi Adithya Lesmana, Pringgodigdo Nugroho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) contributed as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many studies only showed it associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) reduction and albuminuria, but none revealed hematuria data. Besides, liver cirrhosis and viral load as risks for CKD are still yet to be established. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of CKD and its component in hepatitis C and to associate it with liver cirrhosis and viral load. A cross-sectional study using consecutive recruitment on the basis of anti-HCV positivity was done from August 2018 until January 2019. The participants with any renal abnormality on the first meeting were followed prospectively for at least three months. The study was done in Hepatology Clinic Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Liver cirrhosis was defined using transient elastography (>11 kPa). A baseline viral load >100,000 IU/mL was considered as high. CKD was defined as persistence of decreased eGFR and/or albuminuria and/or hematuria for three months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with adjustment for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Of the 185 participants, prevalence of CKD was 23.2% [confidence interval (CI) 95% 17.1%-29.3%]. Decreased eGFR was present in 22 (11.9%), albuminuria in 29 (15.7%), and hematuria in 13 (7%). Liver cirrhosis was associated with CKD (aOR 2.948, CI 95%: 1.218-7.136) but not viral load (aOR: 0.93, CI 95%: 0.396-2.185). Renal examination is recommended in all patients with hepatitis C, particularly in patient with liver cirrhosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1310-1318
Number of pages9
JournalSaudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2021


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