Characterization of x-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance: Effects of sintering time and temperature on bovine hydroxyapatite

Eny Kusrini, Muhammad Sontang

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The physical and chemical properties of a hydroxyapatite produced by the sintering of bovine bone were investigated by powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), electron spin resonance (ESR), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). A bovine bone powder was sintered at different temperatures ranging from 500 to 1400°C. The influences of post-irradiation storage on the radiation ESR response of the bovine bone powder before and after sintering were also studied. The results indicate that the sintered bovine bone powder contained hydroxyapatite. Diffraction patterns were sharp and clear based on the (211), (300), and (202) reflections corresponding to bovine hydroxyapatite (BHA), which confirmed the phase purity and high crystalline grade of the BHA produced. The PXRD profile of BHA was dependent on sintering temperatures and times. The molecular formula of BHA was determined by Rietveld analysis showed a similar structure and composition to calcium hydroxyapatite in hexagonal P63/m space group a=b=9.435Å and c=6.895Å. ESR data showed that the sintering process can decrease the number of free radicals in BHA; it also revealed that the number of free radicals is constant during long storage periods (75 days). The sintering technique described in this study may be used to extract hydroxyapatite from biowaste bovine bone, leading to its application as a bone filler.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-125
Number of pages8
JournalRadiation Physics and Chemistry
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012


  • Bovine hydroxyapatite
  • Electron spin resonance (ESR)
  • Free radicals
  • Rietveld analysis
  • Sintering


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