Characterization of Novel Cement-Based Carboxymethyl Chitosan/Amorphous Calcium Phosphate

Aditya Wisnu Putranto, Endang Suprastiwi, Ratna Meidyawati, Harry Agusnar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objective This study aimed to analyze, evaluate, and characterize novel cement-based carboxymethyl chitosan/amorphous calcium phosphate (CMC/ACP). Materials and Methods The three cement groups studied were gypsum (Gyp), and CMC/ACP-gypsum cement-based 5% (5% CAG) and 10% (10% CAG). The groups were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), setting time, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data. The characterization results were analyzed qualitatively, but the data for setting time were analyzed using SPSS (p < 0.05). Statistical Analysis Data were statistically analyzed. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare numerical (parametric) data between more than two separate groups followed by post hoc Tukey. Results FTIR showed phosphate groups indicate the presence of calcium phosphate in the form of amorphous (ACP) in the CMC/ACP, CMC/ACP post-milled powder, and CMC/ACP cement-based (5% CAG and 10% CAG). XRD showed no difference in the diffraction spectra among the Gyp, 5% CAG, and 10% CAG groups. SEM images revealed that the CMC/ACP cement-based groups (5% CAG and 10% CAG) showed CMC/ACP cluster filled with hollow spaces between the gypsum crystals and aggregations surrounding the gypsum crystals. The CMC/ACP showed envelopes and attached to the crystalline structures of the gypsum. Setting times of 5% CAG and 10% CAG showed significant differences compared with Gyp (p < 0.05). Conclusion The result of our study showed that CMC/ACP cement-based (5% CAG and 10% CAG) demonstrated amorphous characteristic, which can stabilize calcium ions and phosphate group (ACP). In addition, the modification of gypsum using CMC/ACP as cement-based extended the time of setting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)809-814
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Dentistry
Issue number4
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • amorphous calcium phosphate
  • carboxymethyl chitosan
  • dentin remineralization
  • Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy
  • gypsum
  • scanning electron microscopy
  • setting time
  • X-ray diffraction


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