The characteristics of nano rosette TiO2 hydrothermally grown on a glass substrate at different reaction times and acid concentrations has been examined. The hydrothermal reaction was performed at 170°C for 3, 4, 5, and 6 hours whereas the crystallization was achieved through calcination at 450°C for 90 minutes. The growth mechanism was observed by employing the hydrothermal reaction under different acid concentrations: 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50% v/v HCl. The morphology, formation, crystallization, and growth mechanism of the nano rosette TiO2 were characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electron images showed that after 3 hours of hydrothermal reaction time, the nucleation process has just taken place; the formation of the nano rosette was completed after 6 hours. The results also showed that the acid environment plays a dominant role in determining the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the nano rosette TiO2. Structural studies from XRD showed that different acid concentrations resulted in different crystalline formations. The nano rosette rutile TiO2 crystal structure was formed after 6 hours of hydrothermal reaction under 1:1 distilled water and HCl with a structure indexed to rutile P42/mnm with lattice parameters of a = 4.557(6) Å and c = 2.940(5) Å.
- Growth mechanism
- Nano rosette