Changes in germs: A potential preemptive strike against the next pandemic

Usman Sumo Friend

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


With recent multiple outbreaks around the world in the past ten years especially with current massive Asian flu outbreak, HPAI H5N1 is considered to be next pandemic threat. Studies and experiences from three previous 20th-century pandemics influenza A in 1918, 1957 and 1968, teach us lessons in the dynamic nature of influenza virus classification, its mutation and epitope structure. The combined effort in studying epidemiology, molecular structure and analysis of the bioinformatics data, could hopefully prepare us facing the next flu pandemic. The discussion also touches a controversial subject on “weaponized virus,” engineering the wild-type strain to become more pathogenic and highly contagious.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-55
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Medical Sciences (Faisalabad)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Bioinformatics
  • H5N1
  • Influenza A
  • Mutation
  • Pandemic


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