Challenges in diabetes management in Indonesia: A literature review

Pradana Soewondo, Alessandra Ferrario, Dicky L. Tahapary

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

101 Citations (Scopus)


Background and objectives: The expanding diabetes epidemic worldwide could have potentially devastating effects on the development of healthcare systems and economies in emerging countries, both in terms of direct health care costs and loss of working time and disability. This study aims to review evidence on the burden, expenditure, complications, treatment, and outcomes of diabetes in Indonesia and its implications on the current health system developments.Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature review together with a review of unpublished data from the Ministry of Health and a public health insurer (Askes). Studies presenting evidence on prevalence, incidence, mortality, costs, complications and cost of complications, treatment, and outcomes were included in the analysis.Results: A limited number of international, national and local studies on the burden and cost of diabetes in Indonesia were identified. National survey data suggests that in 2007 the prevalence of diabetes was 5.7%, of which more than 70% of cases were undiagnosed. This estimate hides large intracountry variation. There was very limited data available on direct costs and no data on indirect costs. The most commonly-identified complication was diabetic neuropathy.Discussion: There were a number of limitations in the data retrieved including the paucity of data representative at the national level, lack of a clear reference date, lack of data from primary care, and lack of data from certain regions of the country.Conclusions: If left unaddressed, the growing prevalence of diabetes in the country will pose a tremendous challenge to the Indonesian healthcare system, particularly in view of the Government's 2010 mandate to achieve universal health coverage by 2014. Essential steps to address this issue would include: placing diabetes and non-communicable diseases high on the Government agenda and creating a national plan; identifying disparities and priority areas for Indonesia; developing a framework for coordinated actions between all relevant stakeholders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number63
JournalGlobalization and Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 3 Dec 2013


  • Diabetes complications
  • Diabetes costs
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Indonesia


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