CFD simulation of dry out behavior in two-phase closed thermosyphon

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In a heat transfer system, a Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon (TPCT) is highly effective and efficient. A thermosyphon is a closed tube that contains working fluid that serves to transfer heat from the hot section to the cooler section of the tube. A thermosyphon consists of three sections, namely: evaporator, adiabatic, and condenser. One of the problems that occur in thermosyphon applications is “dry out”. Various heat transfer limits occur as a result of the dry out of the liquid film in the evaporator section. When the heat input to the evaporator is relatively high, intensive liquid film evaporation causes the vapor flow to move upwards, quickly, exceeding the flooding limit. To investigate the behavior of fluids in the thermosyphon during the dry out, a CFD transient simulations were performed. The simulation was conducted in 2 dimensional geometry using Ansys Fluent 19.2. The method used was Volume of Fluid (VOF) to declare fluid volume to match the setup. The volume of the fluid was determined by marking the fluid region. The fluid used in the simulation was water with 3 types of filling ratio 50%, 60%, and 70%. In the simulation,TPCT design used consists of an evaporator, adiabatic, and a condenser with a length of each part 2 m, diameter of 0.10674 m and wall thickness of 0.003m. For the meshing area, 2D geometric mesh consisted of 22742 nodes and 21530 elements with 8(103) element sizes in the middle of the area and 4(103) element sizes in the area of the wall were applied. Evaporator area was given a heat flux of 3000W/m2and the wall temperature condenser area was kept constant at 291.15K. The working fluid used in TPCT was water with a vacuum pressure of-74CmHg so that the saturation temperature became 295.2 K. The simulation results for a filling ratio of 50%, filling ratio of 60%, and filling ratio of 70% showed the dry out began to occur at 35.1 s, 45.8 s and 65.9 s, respectively. The water fraction was held back by the vapor fraction that filled the evaporator area so that the resulting water condensation was difficult to flow down to the evaporator section. The results of the research provide insight to the behavior of the fluid in the TPCT when the phase changes from water to steam, so that the dry out conditions can be known and precautions can be taken to avoid the damage or melting of the TPCT due to dry out.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3394-3401
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Advanced Science and Technology
Issue number7 Special Issue
Publication statusPublished - 14 Apr 2020


  • CFD
  • Dry out
  • Fluid behavior
  • Two Phased Closed Thermosyphon (TPCT)
  • VOF (Volume of Fluid)


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