Cerebral small vessel disease in Indonesia: Lacunar infarction study from Indonesian Stroke Registry 2012–2014

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Background and Purpose: Stroke is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Indonesia. Lacunar infarction is one of cerebral small vessel disease spectrum. This study aimed to present stroke epidemiology in Indonesia and risk factors associated with cerebral small vessel disease. Methods: A multicenter prospective cross-sectional study of 18 hospitals in Indonesia was conducted using Stroke Case Report Form from 2012 to 2014. Stroke was diagnosed based on clinical findings confirmed with non-contrast computed tomography of the brain. Subjects were classified into two large groups: ischemic (lacunar and non-lacunar) and hemorrhagic (intracranial and subarachnoid hemorrhage). Other risk factors were assessed on admission. Results: We enrolled 5411 patients, of whom 3627 (67.03%) had ischemic stroke and 1784 (32.97%) had hemorrhagic stroke. Male patients were prevalent in both large groups, although found less in subarachnoid hemorrhage group. Among patients with hemorrhagic stroke, 1603 (89.54%) of them had intracerebral hemorrhage and 181 (10.46%) had subarachnoid hemorrhage. From 3627 ischemic stroke patients, 1635 (45.07%) of them had lacunar infarction. We found that age above 55 years old, male gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were important risk factors associated with lacunar stroke (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Ischemic stroke was the leading cause of stroke in Indonesia. In total, 45% of the total ischemic stroke patients had lacunar infarction. Important risk factors associated with lacunar infarction were hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, age over 55, and male population.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSAGE Open Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jun 2018


  • Cerebral small vessel disease
  • epidemiology
  • risk factors


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