Keraton Kasepuhan Cirebon and the former library of Faculty of Humanities Universitas Indonesia have collections of old manuscripts of European paper origin from 19-20th centuries. This study investigated the cellulolytic and xerophilic characters of 22 fungal strains from nine deteriorated old manuscripts of European paper origin. Detection of cellulolytic fungi by using well diffusion method, modified Czapek's Dox Agar (CDA) with 0.1% (w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a sole carbon source, 0.2% (w/v) Congo red as a chromogenic dye, and cell suspension of approximately 1x107 cell/mL. Cellulolytic fungi formed clear zones around the fungal colonies due to the radial diffusion of the enzyme excreted to the medium. Detection of xerophilic fungi by using Dichloran glycerol Agar (DG18) which contained 18% glycerol to reduce water availability in the medium. Fifteen fungal strains have the ability to use derivative cellulose in CMC as a sole carbon source indicating that these strains possessed endoglucanase (CMCase) activity. The action of cellulolytic enzyme from fungi could dissolve cellulose fibers, or might discolor the paper. All the fungal strains were xerophiles, which indicated that they were able to grow in manuscripts, a condition of reduced water activity. Further studies are required to determine exoglucanase activity by using crystalline cellulose, and molecular identification by using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences to determine the species identities of the fungal strains.