CD44 and CD133 protein expression might serve as a prognostic factor for early occurrence castration-resistant prostate cancer

Yayi Dwina, Litta Septina Mahmelia Zaid, Meilania Saraswati, Lisnawati Rachmadi, Aria Kekalih, Nur Rahadiani, Melva Louisa, Hasrayati Agustina, Chaidir Arif Mochtar, Agus Rizal Ardy Hariandy Hamid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The occurrence of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) varies in patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The rate of occurrence of CRPC may be related to the presence of prostate cancer stem cells (CSC). Thus, this study aims to evaluate the presence of CSC markers (CD44 and CD133) in histopathology tissue at the time of diagnosis and their correlation with the occurrence of CRPC in patients with advanced PCa within 2 years of ADT. Method: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of CRPC within 2 years. The inclusion criteria were patients with PCa who had received treatment with ADT and a first-generation anti-androgen (AA) for 2 years. We classified patients based on whether they developed CRPC within 2 years (CRPC) of the therapy or did not experience CRPC within 2 years (non-CRPC) of the therapy. We performed immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for CD44 and CD133 on the prostate biopsy tissue samples. Results: Data were collected from records spanning 2011–2019. We analyzed a total of 65 samples, including 22 patients with CRPC and 43 patients with non-CRPC who had received treatment with LHRH agonists and AA for up to 2 years. Our findings showed a significant H-score difference in CD44 protein expression between CRPC prostate adenocarcinoma samples 869 (200–1329) and non-CRPC 524 (154–1166) (p = 0.033). There was no significant difference in CD133 protein expression between the two groups (p = 0.554). However, there was a significant difference in the nonoccurrence of CRPC between the high expressions of both CD44 and CD133 groups with other expressions of CD44/CD133 groups (25% vs. 75%; p = 0.011; odds ratio = 4.29; 95% confidence interval [1.34, 13.76]). Conclusion: This study found a low expression of at least one CD44/CD133 protein in the patients without early occurrence of CRPC. This result might suggest that CD44/CD133 may function as a potential prognostic marker for PCa, especially in a low expression, to identify patients who have a better prognosis regarding the occurrence of early CRPC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)738-746
Number of pages9
Issue number8
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024


  • androgen-deprivation therapy
  • anti-androgen
  • cancer stem cell
  • castration-resistant prostate cancer
  • CD133
  • CD44
  • prostate adenocarcinoma


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