Objectives: The dysbiotic oral microbiome plays a key role in the pathogenesis of caries in children. Topical application of casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate containing fluoride (CPP-ACP/F) is an effective treatment modality for children with caries (CC). Hitherto the mechanism by which CPP-ACP/F modules the oral microbiome in CC has not been investigated. The study aimed to examine the CPP–ACP/F effect on the dental plaque microbiome of children group with caries. Methods: This preliminary prospective clinical cohort included 10 children with caries. The children received topical fluoride CPP–ACP/F once-a-week for one month. Plaque samples were collected before and after treatment and subjected to 16S rDNA-based next-generation-sequencing. Microbial composition, diversity and functional roles were analyzed in comparison to the clinical characteristics of cohort using standard bioinformatics tools. Results: CPP-ACP/F treatment modulated dysbiotic oral microbiome towards healthier community as the higher proportion of Proteobacteria and certain microbial protective species were enriched following CPP-ACP/F treatment. Despite overall uniformity of community structure in children with caries between the groups, some bacterial species were differentially represented in a statistically significant manner between pre- and post- treatments. Three bacterial species were found to be predictive of strongly sensitive to the CPP-ACP/F treatment, marked by decreased abundance of Lautropia mirabalis and increased abundance of Gemella haemolysans and Schwartzia succinivorans. Conclusion: Within the limits of the current study, it could be concluded that the CPP-ACP/F varnish treatment modulated the microbial composition of the dental plaque microbiome towards symbiosis. These symbiotic changes may demonstrate the potential clinical significance of CPP-ACP/F varnish treatment.
- Early childhood caries
- Oral microbiome