Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes among Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: Findings from the World Heart Federation COVID-19 Study

Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Kavita Singh, Dimple Kondal, Lana Raspail, Bishav Mohan, Toru Kato, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Shamim Hayder Talukder, Shahin Akter, Mohammad Robed Amin, Fastone Goma, Juan Gomez-Mesa, Ntobeko Ntusi, Francisca Inofomoh, Surender Deora, Evgenii Philippov, Alla Svarovskaya, Alexandra Konradi, Aurelio Puentes, Okechukwu S. OgahBojan Stanetic, Aurora Issa, Friedrich Thienemann, Dafsah Juzar, Ezequiel Zaidel, Sana Sheikh, Dike Ojji, Carolyn S.P. Lam, Junbo Ge, Amitava Banerjee, L. Kristin Newby, Antonio Luiz P. Ribeiro, Samuel Gidding, Fausto Pinto, Pablo Perel, Karen Sliwa

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7 Citations (Scopus)


Background and aims: Limited data exist on the cardiovascular manifestations and risk factors in people hospitalized with COVID-19 from low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to describe cardiovascular risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in low, lower-middle, upper-middle- and high-income countries (LIC, LMIC, UMIC, HIC). Methods: Through a prospective cohort study, data on demographics and pre-existing conditions at hospital admission, clinical outcomes at hospital discharge (death, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), renal failure, neurological events, and pulmonary outcomes), 30-day vital status, and re-hospitalization were collected. Descriptive analyses and multivariable log-binomial regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity/income groups, and clinical characteristics, were performed. Results: Forty hospitals from 23 countries recruited 5,313 patients with COVID-19 (LIC = 7.1%, LMIC = 47.5%, UMIC = 19.6%, HIC = 25.7%). Mean age was 57.0 (±16.1) years, male 59.4%, pre-existing conditions included: hypertension 47.3%, diabetes 32.0%, coronary heart disease 10.9%, and heart failure 5.5%. The most frequently reported cardiovascular discharge diagnoses were cardiac arrest (5.5%), acute heart failure (3.8%), and myocardial infarction (1.6%). The rate of in-hospital deaths was 12.9% (N = 683), and post-discharge 30 days deaths was 2.6% (N = 118) (overall death rate 15.1%). The most common causes of death were respiratory failure (39.3%) and sudden cardiac death (20.0%). The predictors of overall mortality included older age (≥60 years), male sex, pre-existing coronary heart disease, renal disease, diabetes, ICU admission, oxygen therapy, and higher respiratory rates (p < 0.001 for each). Compared to Caucasians, Asians, Blacks, and Hispanics had almost 2–4 times higher risk of death. Further, patients from LIC, LMIC, UMIC versus. HIC had 2–3 times increased risk of death. Conclusions: The LIC, LMIC, and UMIC’s have sparse data on COVID-19. We provide robust evidence on COVID-19 outcomes in these countries. This study can help guide future health care planning for the pandemic globally.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1128
JournalGlobal Heart
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • cardiovascular disease
  • COVID-19
  • mortality


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