Humans are ubiquitously exposed to crotonaldehyde to a strongly varying extent, in particular, via food and alcoholic beverages. Like other α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, crotonaldehyde forms 1,N2propanodeoxyguanosine adducts and is genotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. This study was designed to perform a cancer risk assessment on the basis of TD50, which was available from a long-term cancer study with F-344 rats (F. L. Chung et al., Cancer Res., 46: 1285-1289, 1986), and the estimated daily intake via food and beverages. A relatively high cancer risk of 0.1-1 cancer incidence/103 humans was extrapolated on the basis of the TD50 from the cancer study of Chung et al. for the estimated dietary intake and drinking wine. To compare the 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine DNA adduct levels of crotonaldehyde with the assessed cancer risk, we synthesized adduct standards and developed a 32P-postlabeling method for DNA adducts of crotonaldehyde providing a detection limit of 3 adducts/109 nucleotides. Repeated gavages of 10 and 1 mg/kg were given to simulate the steady-state situation of the animal cancer study of Chung et al. and to estimate the adduct levels after intake of crotonaldehyde via food. The estimated adduct levels at these crotonaldehyde intakes were in the range of 3 adducts/109 nucleotides. The adducts persisted to a certain extent. The persistence is important for considering the steady-state situation after permanent intakes of crotonaldehyde via food. However, the adducts are repaired to some extent; 2 weeks after the last of repeated gavages, only 19% of the initial amount measured directly after the last gavage is left. According to our results, a steady-state concentration in the range of 3 adducts/109 nucleotides is responsible for the induction of cancer in the study of Chung et al., in the case that cancer from crotonaldehyde depends exclusively on the 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts considered here. No propanodeoxyguanosine adducts of crotonaldehyde were found in the DNA of untreated animals in our studies.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention|
|Publication status||Published - 2001|