Cajuputs candy impairs Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans mixed biofilm formation in vitro

Christofora Hanny Wijaya, Siska Septiana, Boy Muchlis Bachtiar, Nancy Dewi Yuliana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Cajuputs candy (CC), an Indonesian functional food, utilizes the bioactivity of Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil (MCEO) to maintain oral cavity health. Synergistic interaction between Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of early childhood caries. Our recent study revealed several alternative MCEOs as the main flavors in CC. The capacity of CC to interfere with the fungus-bacterium relationship remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate CC efficacy to impair biofilm formation by these dual cariogenic microbes. Methods: The inhibition capacity of CC against mixed-biofilm comprising C. albicans and S. mutans was assessed by quantitative (crystal violet assay, tetrazolium salt [MTT] assay, colony forming unit/mL counting, biofilm-related gene expression) and qualitative analysis (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy). Result: Both biofilm-biomass and viable cells were significantly reduced in the presence of CC. Scanning electron microscopy imaging confirmed this inhibition capacity, demonstrating morphology alteration of C. albicans, along with reduced microcolonies of S. mutans in the biofilm mass. This finding was related to the transcription level of selected biofilm-associated genes, expressed either by C. albicans or S. mutans. Based on qPCR results, CC could interfere with the transition of C. albicans yeast form to the hyphal form, while it suppressed insoluble glucan production by S. mutans. G2 derived from Mojokerto MCEO showed the greatest inhibition activity on the relationship between these cross-kingdom oral microorganisms (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In general, all CC formulas showed biofilm inhibition capacity. Candy derived from Mojokerto MCEO showed the greatest capacity to maintain the yeast form of C. albicans and to inhibit extracellular polysaccharide production by S. mutans. Therefore, the development of dual-species biofilms can be impaired effectively by the CC tested.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1923
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020


  • Cajuputs candy
  • Candida albicans
  • Caries
  • Essential oil
  • Mixed biofilm
  • Streptococcus mutans


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