C-reactive protein is associated with cigarette smoking-induced hyperfiltration and proteinuria in an apparently healthy population

Rani Sauriasari, Noriko Sakano, Da Hong Wang, Jiro Takaki, Kei Takemoto, Bingling Wang, Hitoshi Sugiyama, Yoshie Sato, Tomoko Takigawa, Noriko Takahashi, Sakiko Kanbara, Yoshiaki Hitomi, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Keiki Ogino

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Abstract

Although cigarette smoking is known to be an important risk factor for renal disease, the mechanism by which smoking induces progressive renal disease in a healthy population has not been established. We hypothesized that oxidative stress (measured as 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α, 8-iso-PGF2a), inflammation (highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), hs-CRP) and nitric oxide may be associated with an alteration in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria in otherwise healthy smokers. A total of 649 eligible subjects were classified according to their smoking status. Plasma NOx was measured using ozone-based chemiluminescence, urinary 8-iso-PGF2a was measured using enzyme immunoassay and serum hs-CRP was measured using a latex aggregation nephelometry method. The levels of 8-iso-PGF2a and hs-CRP increased in current smokers (P<0.001 and P<0.029, respectively), although there was not an increase in the NOx level. The prevalence of a high eGFR increased in light smokers (odds ratio (OR) 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.61-2.17)) and heavy smokers (OR 2.33 (95% CI, 1.06-5.10)) when compared with non-and past smokers (P for trend0.024). The multivariable-adjusted mean values of the eGFR in current smokers, reported from the lowest to the highest quintiles of hs-CRP levels, were 82.1, 85.1, 86.4 and 88.5 ml per min per 1.73 m 2 (P for trend0.027). The mean values of proteinuria were 28.6, 34.6, 37.2 and 39.5 mg g 1 creatinine (P for trend0.003). The correlation coefficient between hs-CRP and eGFR was increased significantly (P<0.03) across non-(r0.03), past (r0.17), light (r0.13) and heavy smokers (r0.31). In conclusion, cigarette smoking is a risk factor for renal function alteration in healthy smokers and is characterized by a high eGFR and a high urinary protein associated with an increase in the hs-CRP. This finding suggests that hs-CRP may help mediate the alteration of renal function in smokers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1129-1136
Number of pages8
JournalHypertension Research
Volume33
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2010

Keywords

  • 8-iso-PGF2a
  • Cigarette smoking
  • hs-CRP
  • nitric oxide
  • renal function

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    Sauriasari, R., Sakano, N., Wang, D. H., Takaki, J., Takemoto, K., Wang, B., Sugiyama, H., Sato, Y., Takigawa, T., Takahashi, N., Kanbara, S., Hitomi, Y., Nakamura, H., & Ogino, K. (2010). C-reactive protein is associated with cigarette smoking-induced hyperfiltration and proteinuria in an apparently healthy population. Hypertension Research, 33(11), 1129-1136. https://doi.org/10.1038/hr.2010.154