Bronchoscopy Findings of Severe and Critical COVID-19 Patients Treated in ICU: A Year of Experience in a Developing Country

Irandi Putra Pratomo, Gatut Priyonugroho, Hario Baskoro, R. R. Diah Handayani, Jamal Zaini, Anna Rozaliyani, Dita Aditianingsih, Ardiana Kusumaningrum, Tutug Kinasih, Ike Maretta, Himela Asfi Rasigita

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review


Background: Bronchoscopy procedure in patients with COVID-19 poses significant challenges, especially in a developing country with limited resources. Objectives: We aim to describe the clinical characteristics of severe and critical COVID-19 patients treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) and their bronchoscopy findings. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical data of ICU patients with COVID-19 treated and received bronchoscopy procedures. This study retrospectively included all consecutive patients who underwent bronchoscopy at a teaching hospital in Depok, Indonesia, from May, 2020, until May, 2021. Results: A total of 57 bronchoscopy procedures in 54 patients were performed in this study. Primary procedure indications were retained mucus (68.4%) and ventilatory support weaning failure (15.8%). Bronchoscopic findings were mostly hyperaemic mucosa (95.00%) and purulent secretion (50.90%). Microbiological findings from bronchoalveolar samples were Acinetobacter baumanii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Candida albicans (33.3%, 26.6%, and 10.5%, respectively). The most common fungal isolated were Candida albicans (28%), followed by Candida tropicalis (16%) and Aspergillus sp. (8%). The overall length of hospital stay was 24 days, and the in-ICU stay was 22.06 ± 10.99 days. The patients’ survival of 28-days postprocedural outcome was 25.9% (14 subjects). Follow-up found that 20.4% of patients survived after sixty days of hospitalization. Conclusion: Diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy in ICU patients with COVID-19 was safe and feasible to perform in developing countries with limited resources. It could help bronchial mucous clearance and confirm microbiological infection. The procedures should be strictly performed for patients with indications and comply with safety standards.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere187430642210210
JournalOpen Respiratory Medicine Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Bronchoalveolar lavage
  • Bronchoscopy
  • COVID-19 virus disease
  • Developing country
  • Intensive care
  • Microbiological infection


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