Breast cancer risk factors among Sundanese and other ethnic groups in Indonesia

Setyawati Budiningsih, Yoshiyuki Ohno, Joedo Prihartono, Drupadi Harnopidjati, Gunawan Tjahjadi, Esti Soetrisno, Endang Hardjolukito, Muchlis Ramli, Idral Darwis, Didid Tjindarbumi, Goi Sakamoto, Kenji Wakai, Santoso Cornain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


A case control study has been performed for analyzing risk factors of breast cancer in Indonesia females. Three hundred cases and 600 controls were interviewed using standard questionnaires for epidemiological data collection. The subjects were probed for various demographic data, reproductive status, sexual behaviors, dietary habits and other lifestyles. The data were analyzed for determining significant risk factors using both univariate and multivariate analysis. Special attention has been pay on evaluating the risk factors in relation to different ethnic groups. Sundanese ethnic group known to differ in their dietary habits and certain lifestyles to the other ethnic groups, was compared to non-Sundanese. The results showed that among Sundanese, the following risk factors: socio-economic and education levels, living area (rural versus urban), marital status and working status were not significant, while among non-Sundanese, the irregular menstruation and breast trauma increased the risk, with OR and 95%CI of 1.60; 1.12-2.28 and 1.89; 1.02-3.48 respectively. Such an effect was shown also by the whole population. Increased risk due to dietary habits was shown by intakes of coconut milk con­taining food and fatty meat in both Sundanese and non-Sundanese groups and in the whole population. The Odds ratios (OD) in the Sundanese were higher than the OD in the others, i.e. 1.95 versus 1.31 and 1.43 for coconut milk containing food and 1.93 versus 1.37 dan 1.47 for fatty meat. Decreased risk was shown by vegetable/fruit intake in the Sundanese and the whole population, with lower Odds Ratio in the farmer, i.e. 0.31 versus 0.61. Such protective effect was also shown by intakes of fresh vegetable, egg and non-fatty meat in the non-Sundanese group and in the whole population, with similar figures of Odds Ratios. By multivariate analysis, the effect of egg consumption was confirmed in both Sundanese and non-Sundanese, while the effect of vegetable/fruit juice was only seen in Sundanese and the effect of milk was only seen in non-Sundanese.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)128-132
Number of pages5
JournalMedical Journal of Indonesia
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 1999


  • Breast cancer
  • Case control study
  • Ethnic analysis
  • Risk factors


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