Breast cancer case control study: Conceptual framework and epidemiological study design

Joedo Prihartono, Yoshiyuki Ohno, Setyawati Budiningsih, Sadao Suzuki, Santoso Cornain, Nakako Kubo, Didid Tjindarbumi, Susumu Watanabe, Gunawan Tjahjadi, Goi Sakamoto, Idral Darwis, Esti Soetrisno, Endang Sri Roostini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


A multi-disciplinary study on breast cancer has been conducted in the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Central General Hospital Jakarta from 1988 to 1991. The epidemiological component of this study used a case-control design in measuring the causal relationship of various independent variables to the risk of developing breast cancer among Indonesian women. Based on previous studies and existing literatures, a specific conceptual framework has been identified for the purpose of this study. The conceptual framework of this study highlighted the assumed relationship of the risk in developing breast cancer with: 1) genetic traits among the family, 2) hormonal exposure, both indigenously and exogenously, 3) fat accumulation, 4) trauma and other direct exposure to the breast, 5) specific living pattern. The study has covered 300 newly diagnosed breast cancer cases, and 600 matched controls selected among non breast tumor visitors of Jakarta General Hospital at the same period. The matching variables were age interval, and the socio-economic class.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-147
Number of pages5
JournalMedical Journal of Indonesia
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 1995


  • Breast cancer
  • Case control study
  • Conceptual framework


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