Breakfast Consumption and Quality of Macro- and Micronutrient Intake in Indonesia: A Study from the Indonesian Food Barometer

Helda Khusun, Roselynne Anggraini, Judhiastuty Februhartanty, Elise Mognard, Khalida Fauzia, Nursyifa Rahma Maulida, Ony Linda, Jean Pierre Poulain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Breakfast is an important meal that has been shown to have a positive effect on health. The current study aimed to assess the patterns of breakfast consumption among adult Indonesians and to estimate the contribution of breakfast to their nutrient intake and dietary quality. The study used 24-h recall data from the 2018 Indonesian Food Barometer study to assess breakfast intake among 1333 adults aged 18 and above from six provinces in Indonesia. Diet quality was measured using the Nutrient Rich Food index (NRF) 9.3, and the nutritional profile of breakfast was compared across tertiles of NRF 9.3. In total, 5.2% of adults in Indonesia skipped breakfast. Breakfast contributed 26% to daily energy intakes and 22–28% to intakes of all reported nutrients, except for total sugar (12%), vitamin C (8%) and vitamin D (7%). With respect to daily requirements, breakfast contributed approximately 20% to energy, protein, fat and sodium requirements, 26% to saturated fat but <15% to the requirements for most micronutrients and only 5% for fiber. Among breakfast consumers, a higher NRF score was associated with higher daily intakes of protein, dietary fiber and micronutrients and lower intakes of sodium from breakfast. This study suggests that a balanced breakfast in Indonesia should aim to lower fat and saturated fat intake while increasing fiber, potassium, calcium and vitamin C and D intake. These findings could inform the development of nutrient-based guidelines for breakfast consumption in Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3792
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • breakfast consumption
  • diet quality
  • Indonesia
  • nutrient intake
  • nutrient-rich food index 9.3


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