Boiling heat transfer of R-22, R-134a, and CO2 in horizontal smooth minichannels

Kwang Il Choi, Agus Sunjarianto Pamitran, Chun Young Oh, Jong Taek Oh

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113 Citations (Scopus)


This study examined convective boiling heat transfer in horizontal minichannels using R-22, R-134a, and CO2. The local heat transfer coefficients were obtained for heat fluxes ranging from 10 to 40 kW m-2, mass fluxes ranging from 200 to 600 kg m-2 s-1, a saturation temperature of 10 °C, and quality up to 1.0. The test section was made of stainless steel tubes with inner diameters of 1.5 mm and 3.0 mm, and a length of 2000 mm. The section was heated uniformly by applying an electric current to the tubes directly. Nucleate boiling heat transfer was the main contribution, particularly at the low quality region. An increasing and decreasing heat transfer coefficient occurred at the lower vapor quality with increasing heat flux and mass flux. The mean heat transfer coefficient ratio of R-22:R-134a:CO2 was approximately 1.0:0.8:2.0. Laminar flow was observed in the minichannels. A new boiling heat transfer coefficient correlation based on the superposition model for refrigerants in minichannels was developed with a mean deviation of 11.21%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1336-1346
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Refrigeration
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2007


  • Boiling
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Experiment
  • Heat transfer
  • Horizontal tube
  • Microchannel
  • R-134a
  • R-22
  • R-744
  • Refrigerant
  • Smooth tube


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