Available data on metabolic syndrome amongst the aged Indonesian population are limited, despite the importance of these data for cardio vascular disease (CVD) preventive measures. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the associations between anthropometric measurements, lipid profiles, blood pressure, nutrient intakes and physical activity and metabolic syndrome in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from January to April 2000 at selected Public Health Centers in Jakarta using multistage random sampling. Data were collected through anthropometric measurements, biochemical blood analysis, nutrient intake assessment and activity index. The subjects consisted of 352 females and 137 males. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among females was 18.2% and 6.6% in males. This study shows metabolic syndrome was associated with gender, body mass index, total cholesterol and the ratio of total to HDL-cholesterol. Elderly who were overweight based on body mass index (BMI) had almost a four-fold increased risk for metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio = 3.98; 95% confidence interval 2.23 - 7.10). Those who had plasma total cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dl had a 2.7 times greater risk of having metabolic syndrome than those with plasma total cholesterol < 240 mg/dl. Furthermore, in terms of the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol, those who had a ratio ≥ 5 compared to a ratio < 5 had two-fold increased risk for metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, this study shows the importance of routine checks of lipid profile, blood pressure and simple anthropometric assessment to detect the risk of metabolic syndrome in the elderly.
- Body mass index
- Metabolic syndrome