A Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) is a consensus algorithm deployed in a consortium blockchain that connects a group of related participants. This type of blockchain suits the implementation of the Building Information Modeling (BIM) information exchange with few participants. However, when much more participants are involved in the BIM information exchange, the PBFT algorithm, which inherently requires intensive communications among participating nodes, has limitations in terms of scalability and performance. The proposed solution for a multi-layer BFT hypothesizes that multi-layer BFT reduces communication complexity. However, having more layers will introduce more latency. Therefore, in this paper, Double-Layer Byzantine Fault Tolerance (DLBFT) is proposed to improve the blockchain scalability and performance of BIM information exchange. This study shows a double-layer network structure of nodes that can be built with each node on the first layer, which connects and forms a group with several nodes on the second layer. This network runs the Byzantine Fault Tolerance algorithm to reach a consensus. Instead of having one node send messages to all the nodes in the peer-to-peer network, one node only sends messages to a limited number of nodes on Layer 1 and up to three nodes in each corresponding group in Layer 2 in a hierarchical network. The DLBFT algorithm has been shown to reduce the required number of messages exchanged among nodes by 84% and the time to reach a consensus by 70%, thus improving blockchain scalability. Further research is required if more than one party is involved in multi-BIM projects.
- consortium blockchain
- number of message exchange