Blindness and Visual Impairment Situation in Indonesia Based on Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness Surveys in 15 Provinces

Lutfah Rif’Ati, Aldiana Halim, Yeni Dwi Lestari, Nila F. Moeloek, Hans Limburg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To report the latest data on blindness and visual impairment (VI) in Indonesia. Methods: Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) surveys were done in 15 provinces in Indonesia between 2013 and 2017. The population of the study was people aged 50 +. In each province, the required number of clusters was selected with a probability proportionately to size. A weighted average analysis for prevalence, causes of visual impairment, and cataract surgical coverage (CSC) estimated the values of the country. Results: The prevalence of blindness in East Java was the highest at 4.4% (95% CI: 3.1–5.6%), followed by Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) at 4.0% (95% CI: 3.0–5.1%) and South Sumatra at 3.4% (95% CI: 2.4–4.4%). In number, blindness among people aged 50+ in East Java was the highest at 371,599, followed by West Java at 180,666 and Central Java at 176,977. Untreated cataract was the commonest cause of blindness in all provinces (range: 71.7% to 95.5%). CSCperson<3/60 and CSCperson<6/60 in Bali were the highest at 81.3% and 72.4%, respectively. Indonesia countrywide prevalence of blindness was 3.0%. The total number of people with VI (PVA less than 6/18 in the better eye) in Indonesia was 8,019,427, consisting of 1,654,595 of blindness and 6,364,832 of moderate and severe VI. Conclusion: The burden of blindness in Indonesia is high, and untreated cataract contributes the most. There is an urgent need to increase cataract surgical coverage by providing better access to cataract surgery services for all people in need.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)408-419
Number of pages12
JournalOphthalmic Epidemiology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • avoidable blindness
  • cataract
  • Indonesia
  • Prevalence
  • RAAB


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