Bone defect will not undergo any process of healing when not treated. Tissue engineering is currently exploring alternatives for generating new bone tissue. The base triad for bone tissue engineering is manipulation of osteogenic cells, growth factors, and bio scaffolds. Diamond concept includes mechanical environment and this base triad. Provided constant stream of pluripotent stem cells and biomolecular signals that is necessary for bone formation are some advantages of this in vivo bioreactor. Thus, we conducted article searches by using computerized database of PUBMED and Google Scholar. After sorting and selecting, 14 articles were finally obtained. Several things are considered upon designing an in vivo bioreactor. Before conception, it is necessary to measure the size and geometry of the defect. Afterwards, the materials for bioreactor construction must be determined. These include the scaffold material, cell seeding, and growth factors. Method of prefabrications follows to be decided, including site for implantation and time until transfer. Lastly, additional strategies to improve angiogenesis and osseointegration can be considered and added, until the graft is clinically applied. Some issues still need to be covered on this new trending discovery. Study comparing prefabrication sites to find the most optimal site is needed, as well as the optimal time to harvest. Further development regarding technique to produce large volume of bone tissue must be considered. Moreover, further studies in human subjects with larger samples followed by evaluation after clinical implantation would be necessary to examine the applicability and feasibility in human population.
- Bio scaffolds
- Bone defect