Biophilic design patterns for primary schools

Rokhshid Ghaziani, Mark Lemon, Paramita Atmodiwirjo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Existing frameworks for biophilic design have similar strategies and attributes as useful checklists for designers; however, the focus has been on adults rather than children, and there remains the need for more guidance related to school design by extension. The application of biophilia would be a design resolution in schools because of its impact on children’s health and well-being, which has been more important since the pandemic started; however, it remains quite unexplored in school design in many countries, including the UK. Biophilic design patterns can be used in school buildings and grounds for greater connectivity between spaces and nature in order to promote children’s well-being. This paper focuses on ten biophilic design patterns under two categories of ‘nature in the space’ and ‘natural analogues.’ This study presents the findings of case studies in various countries. The analysis focuses on the manifestations of biophilia to inform the application of biophilic design patterns for primary schools. Finally, this paper suggests how primary school children could be involved in a co-design process in order to evaluate biophilic design patterns.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12207
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • Biophilic design
  • Biophilic evaluative tool for children
  • Children’s well-being
  • Co-design with children
  • Primary school design


Dive into the research topics of 'Biophilic design patterns for primary schools'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this