India and Indonesia are privileged with abundant biomass resource potentials, 23 Giga-watt (GW) and 50 GW equivalents respectively, yet both countries harvest small proportions, with fundamentally different deployed policies and articulated strategies. In this regard, this paper focuses on analyzing evolution and deployment of different policies and execution of strategies by two countries. It analyzes the effects of the biomass energy policies and executed strategies in India and Indonesia with a holistic approach. Such an approach takes the policy and strategy of the whole biomass energy sector rather than a segmented and separated sector as biofuel, biogas, biodiesel, etc. Furthermore, how they have resulted in different outcomes is also addressed. Our analysis shows that India's biomass energy policy has evolved from incremental to more radical changes, while Indonesia's policy remains incremental. India has also a relatively more unified biomass energy strategy than Indonesia. India has been more focused on technology development and deployment along with strong institutional creation, whereas Indonesia has not been able to create any biomass sector supporting strong institutions. Therefore, in terms of biomass energy utilizations, India has demonstrated better performance than Indonesia.
- Biomass energy