Biological factors in 2 - 3 years old children in determining risk factors of early childhood caries: Pilot study

Asty Samiaty Setiawan, Risqa Rina Darwita, Sri Susilawati, Diah Ayu Maharani, Ariadna Adisattya Djais

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Damage on the primary teeth can be used as the best predictor of permanent tooth damage. ECC is a serious societal health problem in developing and industrial countries and can begin in the early stage of life and develop rapidly in children with high caries risk. The aim of this study was to analyze biological factors in 2-3 years old children in determining risk factors for early childhood caries. We conducted a cross-sectional study with samples of children, aged 2-3 years, who lived in selected villages with active Integrated Service Post in the Bandung City Community Health Center working area. Caries examination was performed as baseline data using the WHO standard check form to get information dmfs and oral hygiene was assessed using the Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S). Microbiological examination was done to calculate the number of colonies of bacteria Streptococcus mutans on colony forming units (CFU). We performed statistical testing using the Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test and Spearman's rho. The total sample of the study was 156 children with caries prevalence of the was 69.2 % (n = 108) of the children had ECC and the mean ( ± SD) dmfs was 8.1 (± 12.1). The majority of children with ECC showed oral hygiene in the fair category with the mean (± SD) debris index of 1.12 (± 0.76). The average number of Streptococcus mutans in boys (3.5E+04 ± 3.8E+04) was more than that of girls (2.5E+04 ± 2.9E+04), where dmfs in boys were higher than girls. Oral hygiene and Streptococcus mutans colony have a significant correlation to the occurrence of early childhood caries, the direction of positive correlation with the strength of correlation was included in weak category.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)655-671
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Children aged 2-3 years
  • Debris index
  • Early childhood caries
  • Streptococcus mutans colonies


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