Biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training and pelvic electrical stimulation in women with overactive bladder: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Kevin Leonardo, Doddy Hami Seno, Hendy Mirza, Andika Afriansyah

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: This meta-analysis aims to compare biofeedback-assisted pelvic muscle floor training (PFMT) and pelvic electrical stimulation (ES) as an intervention group, with PFMT or bladder training (BT) as the control group, in women with an overactive bladder (OAB). Method: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Scopus were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to November 2021. The RCTs were screened for our eligibility criteria and quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk Index of Bias tools. The outcomes were changes in quality of life (QoL), episodes of incontinence, and the number of participants cured/improved. Results: Eight studies involving 562 patients (comprising 204 patients with biofeedback-assisted PFMT, 108 patients with pelvic ES, and 250 patients who received PFMT alone or BT and lifestyle recommendations only, as the control group) were included. The ES group showed significant differences in terms of changes to QoL (mean difference [MD]: 7.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.90−12.92, p = 0.008), episodes of incontinence (MD: −1.33, 95% CI: −2.50 to −0.17, p = 0.02), and the number of participants cured or improved (risk ratio [RR]: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.14−1.87, p = 0.003), while the biofeedback group resulted in nonsignificant changes in QoL (MD: 0.13, 95% CI: 7.87−8.12, p = 0.98), episodes of incontinence (MD: 0.01, 95% CI: −0.89 to 0.90, p = 0.99), and the number of participants cured or improved (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: 0.99−1.33, p = 0.08), both compared to the control group respectively. Conclusion: This meta-analysis shows that low-frequency pelvic ES appears to be sufficient and effective as an additional intervention for women with OAB in clinical practice according to improvements in the subjects' QoL and reduction of symptoms. Meanwhile, biofeedback-assisted PFMT does not appear to be a significant adjuvant for conservative OAB therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1258-1269
Number of pages12
JournalNeurourology and Urodynamics
Volume41
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • biofeedback
  • electrical stimulation
  • overactive bladder
  • pelvic floor muscle training

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