Bio-bleaching agents used for paper and pulp produced from the valorization of corncob, wheat straw, and bagasse

Kanya C.H. Alifia, Tjandra Setiadi, Ramaraj Boopathy, Hendro Risdianto, Muhammad Irfan, Ibnu M. Hidayatullah

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The research on valorization of agricultural wastes is a breakthrough in combining agricultural waste treatment with the production of bio-based chemical substitutes. Agricultural wastes such as corncob, wheat straw, and bagasse are available as cheap and natural carbon sources for enzyme production. The pulp and paper industry has started to phase out chemical bleaching agents with enzymes such as cellulases, xylanases, and laccases, specifically for the pre-bleaching step and the delignification step. Using enzymes will not only be beneficial economically, but also environmentally as the process contributes to less toxic waste. Multiple studies have conducted research on producing cellulase, xylanase, or laccase in varying production methods. This chapter aims to highlight the potential of agricultural wastes with high lignocellulosic content for enzyme production, explain the usage of bio-bleaching enzymes, and analyze the techno-economical aspect through a case study on enzyme production from the submerged fermentation of wheat chaff by the fungi Trichoderma reesei QM 9414. The challenges and future research outlooks of waste valorization for enzyme production were also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationChemical Substitutes from Agricultural and Industrial By-Products
Subtitle of host publicationBioconversion, Bioprocessing, and Biorefining
Number of pages27
ISBN (Electronic)9783527841141
ISBN (Print)9783527351862
Publication statusPublished - 11 Sept 2023


  • Agricultural wastes
  • Bio-bleaching
  • Cellulase
  • Laccase
  • Xylanase


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