Whether acute or chronic, liver failure is a state of liver dysfunction that can progress to multiorgan failure. Mortality in liver failure patients is approximately 80–90% and is caused by detoxification failure, which triggers other immediate complications, such as encephalopathy, coagulopathy, jaundice, cholestasis, and acute kidney failure. The ideal treatment for liver failure is liver transplantation, but the long waiting period for the right donor match causes unavoidable deaths in most patients. Therefore, new therapies, such as tissue engineering, hepatocyte transplantation, and stem cells, are now being studied to anticipate the patient’s condition while waiting for liver transplantation. This literature review investigated the effectiveness of some bio-artificial liver support systems using review methods systematically from international publication sites, including PubMed, using keywords, such as bio-artificial liver, acute and chronic liver failure, extracorporeal liver support system (ECLS), MARS, single-pass albumin dialysis (SPAD). Artificial and bioartificial liver systems can show specific detoxification abilities and pathophysiological improvements in liver failure patients but cannot reach the ideal criteria for actual liver function. The liver support system must provide the metabolic and synthetic function as in the actual liver while reducing the pathophysiological changes in liver failure. Aspects of safety, cost efficiency, and practicality are also considered. Identifying the technology to produce high-quality hepatocytes on a big scale is essential as a medium to replace failing liver cells. An increase in detoxification capacity and therapeutic effectiveness must also focus on patient survival and the ability to perform liver transplantation.