Benzene exposure analysis via the biomarker S-Phenylmercapturic acid and hemoglobin levels of shoemakers in Sukajaya Village, West Java Province, Indonesia

Ranti Ekasari, Ririn Arminsih

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In Indonesia, shoe manufacturing is a growing informal industry, making the country the world's fourth largest shoe and sandal producer. In the sizing process, shoe making uses the chemical benzene, exposure to which causes problems in the human hematopoietic system, and, in turn, decreased hemoglobin levels. Therefore, this study aimed to identify benzene in the body via measurement of the s-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) biomarker of shoemakers' hemoglobin levels in Sukajaya Village, Indonesia. Conducted from March to May 2018, this cross-sectional study used a total sampling method with 73 shoemakers. The inclusion criteria of this study such as the workers must be a man with at least one year of task length and had an active status of worker in workplace. Analytical results showed that workers with high S-PMA concentrations ( > 0.67 μg/g creatinine) were 1.25 times more likely to have hemoglobin < 14 g/dL than those who had low S-PMA concentrations ( < 0.67μg/g creatinine). In addition, workers' risk rose to 1.36 after spending a year in the gluing section. Workplace risk control should include constant open ventilation in the gluing section and rotation of workers to other tasks. The worker also should use mask as personal protective equipment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)828-832
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Volume12
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

Keywords

  • Benzene
  • Hemoglobin
  • S-phenylmercapturic acid
  • Shoe making
  • Shoemakers

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